Glam metal or hairmetal is a music style and a subgenre of Heavy metal. The genre combines elements of (glam)glam rock, hard rock and heavy metal and was especially popular in the eighties of the last century.
Originally the term referred to the appearance of the representing bands and their fans, characterized by extravagant stage clothing, hair style, makeup and exuberant performances. Nowadays the term can also refer to the mixture of not further define (glam) rock, hard rock and heavy metal and a clearly present to lie in the ambition to better hearing than the more traditional heavy metal, allowing a wider audience to the music feels attracted. Because of that last is the genre also called called popmetal.
Although very popular in the eighties, to the genre came under increasing negative attention because of the lavish lifestyle of the band members.
Many bands called themselves in the early days not openly ' glam metal ' but simply ' hard rock ' or ' heavy metal '. At these bands was making loud music were central and yet extravagant stage clothing and other types of glitter and glam still afterthought. At the beginning of the 1980s there was in General, under the influence of bands such as Kiss and Alice Cooper, Judas Priest a general trend in the heavy metal of pronounced outfits and theatrical shows.
Certain bands, such as Ratt and Exodus, sizes relate handcrafted Metal genres such as ' Fashion ', with which it became clear that for an ever-expanding group of the outward image an increasingly important part of the music would be. Record companies are adept at played here. As a kind of ' light metal ' turned out to be geglamouriseerde hard rock and heavy metal sold particularly well to the youth of the 1980s, when producers at many bands incorporated a pop rock-like, slick production. Glam metal became a universal popproduct, based on heavy metal and taken away all the sharp edges, brought to you by beautiful, attractive performers.
Many fans of real heavy metal were here not happy with it. They found that glam metal bands had betrayed their music and wanted to return to the heavy metal which is becoming more powerful and meaner would sound. This contributed to the emergence of the first speed metal and thrash metal, then the first major opposition against glam metal. From the end of the eighties and early nineties there was also becoming more talked about ' hair metal '. This term came above all from the point of view of thrashmetalfans initially and later also from the grunge and was mostly pejorative meant, although with time (new) fans of glam metal itself are also going to mention ' openly ' hair metal heads.
The exact moment of emergence of glam metal is difficult to say. It is clear that the show element of acts from the (early) 1970s, such as Alice Cooper and Arthur Brown, have affected. Other early schools of thought in the hard rock and heavy metal are, however, equally influence. The musical follows the style in the early years, a rate not significantly different than, for example, the New Wave Of British Heavy Metal, which on the other side of the ocean around about the same time begins to develop.
In the United States shows there is a greater preference to exist for elements of glam rock. At the time the punk rock is experiencing its peak, British and European bands take the anger and energy of it over, while American bands to focus more on the theatrical aspects of punk.
The most clear of influence as far as the show element, the New York Dolls . This proto-punk group joined in the mid-1970s on in outfits that ten years later would be associated with the most glam metal: tight leather jackets, skinny jeans, spandex, leggings, scarves, Leopard prints, sunglasses and top hats. The album title lipstick killerscompletes the blueprint for the image of bombastic outfits, magnified make-upgebruik and excessive interest in beautiful women.
Other important influences in the 1970s would also like Kiss and Van Halen , which itself in the long run for long period in the glam metal scene would go up.
In the 1980s glam metal became a dominant genre. Especially in Los Angeles show the interest in hard rock music with a significantly lighter theme than the grim European heavy metal great. Various bands such as Quiet Riot, Mötley Crüe and initially processed Helloween classic horror themes in their music. This happened, however, especially on a frivolous, almost humorous way. Other bands like Ratt, Kix and let the Black 'n Blue theatrical horror theme all the way and settle for a image of fast cars, beautiful women and exuberant celebrations. The performances are pretty much day by day and even more extravagant bands soon began to outdo each other with stage outfits, show and after-parties.
Although lyrically the music in this period is limited to just a refrain and stanzas, turning to previously mentioned images, characterizes this period by dedicated musicians with the ambition to boundaries. Complex guitar solos characterize the genre and guitarists as Robbin Crosby, Warren Demartini, Steve Clark and Chris Holmes became guitar heroes.
Finally, there were bands such as Twisted Sister and W.A.S.P., which a 1980s version of the shock rock of Alice Cooper (which, incidentally, itself in the late 1980s glam metal world pops up) wanted to make. With titles like ' we're not gonna take it ' and ' Animal (I fuck like a beast) ' were the arrows clearly aimed at conservative America. If Ozzy Osbourne Black Sabbath after his resignation from the American glam metal scene joins, that because of his with pulp horror and gallows humor-soaked plates compared to the antichrist (where Od then again through the number replies laconically on Rock & Roll rebel in 1983). Also in 1983, a lawsuit against Twisted Sister singer Dee Snider, one of the most famous figures of the glam metal. It was alleged that his lyrics were aggressive and perverse and the ruling was that every cover of a Twisted Sister-album had to be provided with a sticker stating that the album contained texts, in order to reduce aggressive sales. The stickers had a reverse effect, the albums were selling better than ever before with nearly doubling of sales.RattStryper
Because the heyday of glam metal coincided with that of the arena rock in the United States, the most popular glam metal bands were able to quickly swap the small and medium-sized clubs for large stadiums and sports palaces. The description that producer Beau Hill in the VH1 documentary Behind the music: Ratt gives, on how the top 20 hit in 1984 Round & round by Ratt is sung out loud by 18,000 fans during a stadium Act, is typical of the image that the media have about high tide of the glam metal.
Thanks to the success of the big acts, however, were looking for bands in the heavy metal already had a career, such as Nazareth, Judas Priest and Ozzy Osbourne already mentioned, through glam metal a way to a new and larger audience. This sometimes even went so far as to bands from genres like new wave (The Cult) and hardcore punk (T.S.O.L.) that with little or no hard rock or heavy metal band had, yet their happiness in the glam metal scene test went. With varying degrees of success by the way, but it shows how popular glam metal was the mid-1980s. In addition, if new formations were also the Japanese band Loudness The Canadian bands Slaughter and Alias and the british band Warrant chasing the dream to be rock star, making the market quickly became saturated with "acceptable" "productions which added nothing new to the genre and more which are all about the same sounded.
But also at the renowned glam metal bands, the quality. For bands like Quiet Riot the music became less and less important, as long as their acts but were better than those of other bands. Bands like Mötley Crüe and Ratt were then again more often than not under the influence of alcohol or drugs on the stage. In addition, within the mutual struggles and jealousy caused by managers as mega corporations managed bands, combined with the overly defined and polished way of producing albums, that even the most talented bands in the long term, a creative low point reached.
Initially mostly came speed and American thrash metal in rebellion against what they called themselves the "hair corporation". Bands like Exodus, Slayer, Anthrax, Megadeth and Metallica especially launched a style and trend of a new kind of heavy metal, this time even faster, harder and more venomous than the NWOBHM that them on the other side of the Ocean had gone in advance. One stepped also all off of the "fast cars, hot girls and party"-cliche (although all things Metallica itself in the 1990s with the number would fall back on Fuel that cliché) and again made music on the traditional heavy metal-thama's: social problems combined with morbid horror themes. Glam metal bands and their fans were called "posers" and there were special thrash metal-festivals established where those posers decided were not welcome.
Despite that first pain virtually the whole 1980s glam metal continuously remained popular in America, if this is at the expense of the edginess and got the genre with a growing "disposable pop music"-image to camps that was difficult to reconcile with their heavy metalroots. Some glam metal bands attempted to reverse this tide. Queensrÿche stuck in an interview the Dragon with the clichés of glam metal and suggested in one breath their concept album Operation: Mindcrime for. The music sounded relatively still glam and radio friendly, but the whole theme was turned around so that the album just like the thrashalbums from then on conspiracy theories and religious questions acted.
Stryperwent even further, that the concept of white metal and chamfered launched against the morbid and Satanic in black and death metal. However, only really successful late innovators as Annihilator and Testament, which especially glam/trash metal again so powerful and viciously as in the early days and made the polished image exchanged for a more rugged look that is midway between the effeminate looks and the glam metal-Street bum-looks of the thrashers. Although they have no link with it, musical turned out to be their change of style a for sign of the much larger changes that a few years later the grunge would trigger in rock music.
One of the last real hair metal bands with monster success was Winger. With songs like Seventeen and Madalaine , they show that societal reflection and not to their stark was spent. Despite the superficial image, was Poison subcutaneous be a well-oiled machine. Both lead singers Kip Winger and Ronnie James Dio as guitar virtuoso Reb Beach were sharp businessmen who saw that if you came in the late 1980s with a glam band that still sounded slightly better than all the rest, you are right also could earn the most money of all the bands. This approach to heavy metal and hard rock as a cash cow is what in eyes of many heavy metal fans the death blow for the genre has become the beginning of the nineties.
Yet it was this process already long for Ratt, Loudness, Quiet Riot and Motley Crue used. The surplus albums and the growing use of synthesizers and later also pianos by bands like Alias, Cinderella and Europe formed a source of annoyance for the typically puritanical set heavy metal fans. When more and more bands also had started to bring out the power ballads for a lot of fans already at all anymore. Bands such as Twisted Sister still remained true to the genre because in their eyes have nothing to do with heavy metal power ballads and the fans of that music not on were waiting. Bands that did sacrificed much of their initial followings for more popgerichte consumers, that are only interested in individual songs and had no loyal fans were. In any case, this explains why many hairbands their audience with often more than three quarters saw drop when the grunge rock from the 1990s was introduced.
However, there will be another element a major role in the extinction of glam metal have played. The documentary The Decline Of Western Civilizations Part 2: The Metal YearW.A.S.P. guitarist Chris Holmes, in which in his swimming pool, for the eyes of his mother, the one bottle of spirits after the other achteroversloeg works for many as the eyeopener. The hair metal years had, in their profusion and incessant hunger for more, destroyed many lives. Some glam metal artists were already killed to drugs or alcohol abuse, or in traffic accidents due to drunk driving, and many others would in subsequent years to their addiction go under. More and more bands started to fall apart, and by the general impression of a genre that's as indulged as the hotel rooms that the rock stars visited hooked up many fans off.
By the mid-1990s, the golden age of glam metal definitively over. Some bands would still exist for many years, some even to this day, but those who stayed all changed their image to a greater or lesser extent. The very last video clip of Ratt, on the track "Nobody rides for free , for example, anno 1991 showed a band in beach-and surf clothes, without makeup or fuss. Also the lyrics of the song was darker, with an allusion to personal problems. Not much later the band incidentally because of too many discords apart.Also in other large bands like W.A.S.P., Poison, Mötley Crue, Dokken, Warrant and Autograph followed periods full line-up and/or disagreement. In addition, many bands besides the looks changed the sound of the music. The ever typical long drawn out guitar solos were drastically shortened or even omitted entirely and carpet the complex sounds full of high tones gave way to much more raw heavy metal rock music with more emphasis on deep bass sounds. From glam was there barely more talk.The Darkness
Despite the lasting negative impression on the general public hair metal has failed, there are still young people and new bands with an interest in this kind of heavy metal. This is possible due to the fact that the rest of the genre since black metal through death metal, thrash metal, metalcore and ultimately getting harder and has become more extreme. This is a vacuum in which people are searching for hard music but less harsh than the rest of what metal has to offer (see also Stoner rock). Some older glam metal bands have performed here is handy and from 2000 on in style and often also in the occupation of during the 1980s. Bands like Black Veil Brides, The Darkness, Steel Pantherand Reckless Love even want to breathe new life into the genre. At the new crop of one, especially in Europe that speaks the actual hair metal eighties to a much lesser extent than America has experienced, also called of "Sleaze metal".
- Black Veil Brides
- Britny Fox
- Danger Danger
- Mötley Crüe
- Quiet Riot
- Racer X
- Reckless Love
- Roxx Gang
- Steel Panther
- The Darkness
- Twisted Sister
- Van Halen