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'''"Ohio"''' is a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protest_song protest song] and [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Counterculture_of_the_1960s counterculture] anthem written and composed by [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neil_Young Neil Young] in reaction to the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kent_State_shootings Kent State shootings] of May 4, 1970, and performed by[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crosby,_Stills_%26_Nash_(and_Young) Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young].<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-1" style="line-height:1;unicode-bidi:-webkit-isolate;">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ohio_%28CSNY_song%29#cite_note-1 [1]]</sup> It was released as a single, backed with [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stephen_Stills Stephen Stills]'s "Find the Cost of Freedom", peaking at number 14 on the US [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Billboard_Hot_100 Billboard Hot 100]. Although a live version of the song was included on the group's 1971 [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Double_album double album] ''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Four_Way_Street Four Way Street],'' the studio versions of both songs did not appear on an LP until the group's compilation ''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/So_Far_(album) So Far]'' was released in 1974. The song also appeared on the Neil Young compilation album ''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Decade_(Neil_Young_album) Decade],'' released in 1977.
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<p style="margin-top:0.5em;line-height:22.399999618530273px;color:rgb(37,37,37);font-family:sans-serif;">'''"Ohio"''' is a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protest_song protest song] and [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Counterculture_of_the_1960s counterculture] anthem written and composed by [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neil_Young Neil Young] in reaction to the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kent_State_shootings Kent State shootings] of May 4, 1970, and performed by[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crosby,_Stills_%26_Nash_(and_Young) Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young].<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-1" style="line-height:1;unicode-bidi:-webkit-isolate;">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ohio_%28CSNY_song%29#cite_note-1 [1]]</sup> It was released as a single, backed with [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stephen_Stills Stephen Stills]'s "Find the Cost of Freedom", peaking at number 14 on the US [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Billboard_Hot_100 Billboard Hot 100]. Although a live version of the song was included on the group's 1971 [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Double_album double album] ''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Four_Way_Street Four Way Street],'' the studio versions of both songs did not appear on an LP until the group's compilation ''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/So_Far_(album) So Far]'' was released in 1974. The song also appeared on the Neil Young compilation album ''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Decade_(Neil_Young_album) Decade],'' released in 1977.</p>
   
The song also appears on Neil Young's ''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Live_at_Massey_Hall_1971 Live at Massey Hall]'' album, which he recorded in 1971 but did not release until 2007.
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<p style="margin-top:0.5em;margin-bottom:0.5em;line-height:22.399999618530273px;color:rgb(37,37,37);font-family:sans-serif;">The song also appears on Neil Young's ''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Live_at_Massey_Hall_1971 Live at Massey Hall]'' album, which he recorded in 1971 but did not release until 2007.</p>
   
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<p style="margin-top:0.5em;margin-bottom:0.5em;line-height:22.399999618530273px;color:rgb(37,37,37);font-family:sans-serif;">
==Recording==
 
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</p>
Young wrote the lyrics to "Ohio" after seeing the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mary_Ann_Vecchio photos of the incident] in ''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Life_(magazine) Life] Magazine.''<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-2" style="line-height:1;unicode-bidi:-webkit-isolate;">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ohio_%28CSNY_song%29#cite_note-2 [2]]</sup> On the evening that CSN&Y entered [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Record_Plant_Studios Record Plant Studios] in [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Los_Angeles Los Angeles], the song had already been rehearsed, and the quartet with their regular rhythm section recorded it live in just a few takes. During the same session they recorded the single's equally direct [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A-side_and_B-side B-side], [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stephen_Stills Stephen Stills's] ode to the war's dead, "Find the Cost of Freedom".
 
   
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==Contents==
The record was [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Master_recording mastered] with the participation of the four principals, rush-released by [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atlantic_Records Atlantic] and heard on the radio with only a few weeks' delay. (This was despite the group already having their hit song "[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teach_Your_Children Teach Your Children]" on the charts at the time.) In his liner notes for the song on the ''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Decade_(Neil_Young_album) Decade]'' retrospective, Young termed the Kent State incident as 'probably the biggest lesson ever learned at an American place of learning' and reported that "[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Crosby David Crosby] cried when we finished this take."<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-Album_3-0" style="line-height:1;unicode-bidi:-webkit-isolate;">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ohio_%28CSNY_song%29#cite_note-Album-3 [3]]</sup> Indeed, Crosby can be heard [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Keening keening] "Four, why? Why did they die?" and "How many more?" in the fade.
 
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<span class="toctoggle" style="-webkit-user-select:none;"> [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ohio_%28CSNY_song%29# hide]] </span>*[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ohio_%28CSNY_song%29#Recording 1 Recording]
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*[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ohio_%28CSNY_song%29#Lyrics_and_reaction 2 Lyrics and reaction]
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*[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ohio_%28CSNY_song%29#Covers 3 Covers]
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*[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ohio_%28CSNY_song%29#Personnel 4 Personnel]
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**[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ohio_%28CSNY_song%29#Additional_personnel 4.1 Additional personnel]
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*[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ohio_%28CSNY_song%29#See_also 5 See also]
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*[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ohio_%28CSNY_song%29#References 6 References]
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<p style="margin-top:0.5em;line-height:22.399999618530273px;color:rgb(37,37,37);font-family:sans-serif;">
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</p>
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==Recording<span class="mw-editsection" style="-webkit-user-select:none;font-size:small;margin-left:1em;line-height:1em;display:inline-block;white-space:nowrap;unicode-bidi:-webkit-isolate;font-family:sans-serif;"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket" style="color:rgb(85,85,85);">[</span>[http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ohio_(Crosby,_Stills,_Nash_%26_Young_song)&action=edit&section=1 edit]<span class="mw-editsection-bracket" style="color:rgb(85,85,85);">]</span></span>==
 
<p style="margin-top:0.5em;line-height:22.399999618530273px;color:rgb(37,37,37);font-family:sans-serif;">Young wrote the lyrics to "Ohio" after seeing the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mary_Ann_Vecchio photos of the incident] in ''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Life_(magazine) Life] Magazine.''<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-2" style="line-height:1;unicode-bidi:-webkit-isolate;">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ohio_%28CSNY_song%29#cite_note-2 [2]]</sup> On the evening that CSN&Y entered [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Record_Plant_Studios Record Plant Studios] in [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Los_Angeles Los Angeles], the song had already been rehearsed, and the quartet with their regular rhythm section recorded it live in just a few takes. During the same session they recorded the single's equally direct [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A-side_and_B-side B-side], [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stephen_Stills Stephen Stills's] ode to the war's dead, "Find the Cost of Freedom".</p>
   
 
<p style="margin-top:0.5em;margin-bottom:0.5em;line-height:22.399999618530273px;color:rgb(37,37,37);font-family:sans-serif;">The record was [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Master_recording mastered] with the participation of the four principals, rush-released by [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atlantic_Records Atlantic] and heard on the radio with only a few weeks' delay. (This was despite the group already having their hit song "[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teach_Your_Children Teach Your Children]" on the charts at the time.) In his liner notes for the song on the ''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Decade_(Neil_Young_album) Decade]'' retrospective, Young termed the Kent State incident as 'probably the biggest lesson ever learned at an American place of learning' and reported that "[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Crosby David Crosby] cried when we finished this take."<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-Album_3-0" style="line-height:1;unicode-bidi:-webkit-isolate;">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ohio_%28CSNY_song%29#cite_note-Album-3 [3]]</sup> Indeed, Crosby can be heard [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Keening keening] "Four, why? Why did they die?" and "How many more?" in the fade.</p>
According to the notes to ''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neil_Young_Greatest_Hits Neil Young Greatest Hits]'', released in 2004, it was recorded by [http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bill_Halverson&action=edit&redlink=1 Bill Halverson] on May 21, 1970, at Record Plant Studio 3 in Hollywood.
 
   
 
<p style="margin-top:0.5em;margin-bottom:0.5em;line-height:22.399999618530273px;color:rgb(37,37,37);font-family:sans-serif;">According to the notes to ''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neil_Young_Greatest_Hits Neil Young Greatest Hits]'', released in 2004, it was recorded by [http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bill_Halverson&action=edit&redlink=1 Bill Halverson] on May 21, 1970, at Record Plant Studio 3 in Hollywood.</p>
==Lyrics and reaction==
 
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==Lyrics and reaction<span class="mw-editsection" style="-webkit-user-select:none;font-size:small;margin-left:1em;line-height:1em;display:inline-block;white-space:nowrap;unicode-bidi:-webkit-isolate;font-family:sans-serif;"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket" style="color:rgb(85,85,85);">[</span>[http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ohio_(Crosby,_Stills,_Nash_%26_Young_song)&action=edit&section=2 edit]<span class="mw-editsection-bracket" style="color:rgb(85,85,85);">]</span></span>==
The lyrics help evoke the turbulent mood of horror, outrage and shock in the wake of the shootings, especially the line "four dead in Ohio," repeated throughout the song. "Tin soldiers and Nixon coming" refers to the[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kent_State_shootings Kent State shootings] where Ohio [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_National_Guard National Guardsmen] shot and killed four student protesters and Young's attribution of their deaths to the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/President_of_the_United_States President of the United States], [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Nixon Richard Nixon]. Crosby once stated that Young keeping Nixon's name in the lyrics was "the bravest thing I ever heard." The American [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Counterculture_of_the_1960s counterculture] took the group as its own after this song, giving the four a status as leaders and spokesmen they would enjoy to varying extent for the rest of the decade.
 
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{| class="metadata plainlinks ambox ambox-content ambox-Unreferenced" role="presentation" style="margin:0px135.796875px;border-width:1px1px1px10px;border-style:solid;border-color:rgb(170,170,170)rgb(170,170,170)rgb(170,170,170)rgb(242,133,0);color:rgb(37,37,37);font-family:sans-serif;line-height:22.399999618530273px;background:rgb(251,251,251);"
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| class="mbox-image" style="border:none;padding:2px0px2px0.5em;text-align:center;"|[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Question_book-new.svg]
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| class="mbox-text" style="border:none;padding:0.25em0.5em;width:848px;"|This section '''does not [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Citing_sources cite] any [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Verifiability references or sources]'''. Please help improve this section by [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Help:Introduction_to_referencing/1 adding citations to reliable sources]. Unsourced material may be challenged and [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Verifiability#Burden_of_evidence removed]. ''(March 2009)''
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|}
 
<p style="margin-top:0.5em;line-height:22.399999618530273px;color:rgb(37,37,37);font-family:sans-serif;">The lyrics help evoke the turbulent mood of horror, outrage and shock in the wake of the shootings, especially the line "four dead in Ohio," repeated throughout the song. "Tin soldiers and Nixon coming" refers to the[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kent_State_shootings Kent State shootings] where Ohio [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_National_Guard National Guardsmen] shot and killed four student protesters and Young's attribution of their deaths to the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/President_of_the_United_States President of the United States], [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Nixon Richard Nixon]. Crosby once stated that Young keeping Nixon's name in the lyrics was "the bravest thing I ever heard." The American [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Counterculture_of_the_1960s counterculture] took the group as its own after this song, giving the four a status as leaders and spokesmen they would enjoy to varying extent for the rest of the decade.</p>
   
After the double's release, it was banned from some [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AM_broadcasting AM] [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radio_stations radio stations] because of the challenge to the Nixon Administration in the lyrics, but received airplay on underground [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FM_broadcasting FM] stations in larger cities and college towns. Today, the song receives regular airplay on [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Classic_rock classic rock] stations. The song was selected as the 385th Greatest Song of All Time by ''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rolling_Stone Rolling Stone]'' in December 2004.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-rs_4-0" style="line-height:1;unicode-bidi:-webkit-isolate;">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ohio_%28CSNY_song%29#cite_note-rs-4 [4]]</sup>
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<p style="margin-top:0.5em;margin-bottom:0.5em;line-height:22.399999618530273px;color:rgb(37,37,37);font-family:sans-serif;">After the double's release, it was banned from some [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AM_broadcasting AM] [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radio_stations radio stations] because of the challenge to the Nixon Administration in the lyrics, but received airplay on underground [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FM_broadcasting FM] stations in larger cities and college towns. Today, the song receives regular airplay on [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Classic_rock classic rock] stations. The song was selected as the 385th Greatest Song of All Time by ''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rolling_Stone Rolling Stone]'' in December 2004.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-rs_4-0" style="line-height:1;unicode-bidi:-webkit-isolate;">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ohio_%28CSNY_song%29#cite_note-rs-4 [4]]</sup></p>
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==Covers<span class="mw-editsection" style="-webkit-user-select:none;font-size:small;margin-left:1em;line-height:1em;display:inline-block;white-space:nowrap;unicode-bidi:-webkit-isolate;font-family:sans-serif;"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket" style="color:rgb(85,85,85);">[</span>[http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ohio_(Crosby,_Stills,_Nash_%26_Young_song)&action=edit&section=3 edit]<span class="mw-editsection-bracket" style="color:rgb(85,85,85);">]</span></span>==
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<p style="margin-top:0.5em;line-height:22.399999618530273px;color:rgb(37,37,37);font-family:sans-serif;">Notable covers of the song:</p>
   
==Covers==
 
 
*1971 - The song was recorded by [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Isley_Brothers the Isley Brothers] on their album ''Givin' It Back''.
 
*1971 - The song was recorded by [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Isley_Brothers the Isley Brothers] on their album ''Givin' It Back''.
 
*1993 - [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Weller_(singer) Paul Weller] recorded a cover during the sessions for ''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wild_Wood Wild Wood]'', and it was released as a B-side to his single "The Weaver."
 
*1993 - [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Weller_(singer) Paul Weller] recorded a cover during the sessions for ''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wild_Wood Wild Wood]'', and it was released as a B-side to his single "The Weaver."
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*2007 - The song was covered by [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dala_(band) Dala] on the Canadian ''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Borrowed_Tunes_II:_A_Tribute_to_Neil_Young Borrowed Tunes II: A Tribute to Neil Young]'' tribute album. Their recording later appeared on the 2008 tribute album ''Cinnamon Girl – Women Artists Cover Neil Young''.
 
*2007 - The song was covered by [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dala_(band) Dala] on the Canadian ''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Borrowed_Tunes_II:_A_Tribute_to_Neil_Young Borrowed Tunes II: A Tribute to Neil Young]'' tribute album. Their recording later appeared on the 2008 tribute album ''Cinnamon Girl – Women Artists Cover Neil Young''.
 
*2009 - The song was covered by [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chris_Robinson_(singer) Chris] and [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rich_Robinson Rich Robinson] of [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Black_Crowes The Black Crowes] in the documentary feature film ''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_People_Speak_(film) The People Speak]''.
 
*2009 - The song was covered by [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chris_Robinson_(singer) Chris] and [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rich_Robinson Rich Robinson] of [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Black_Crowes The Black Crowes] in the documentary feature film ''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_People_Speak_(film) The People Speak]''.
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==Personnel<span class="mw-editsection" style="-webkit-user-select:none;font-size:small;margin-left:1em;line-height:1em;display:inline-block;white-space:nowrap;unicode-bidi:-webkit-isolate;font-family:sans-serif;"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket" style="color:rgb(85,85,85);">[</span>[http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ohio_(Crosby,_Stills,_Nash_%26_Young_song)&action=edit&section=4 edit]<span class="mw-editsection-bracket" style="color:rgb(85,85,85);">]</span></span>==
 
==Personnel==
 
 
*[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Crosby David Crosby] — [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vocals vocals], [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhythm_guitar rhythm guitar] on "Ohio"
 
*[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Crosby David Crosby] — [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vocals vocals], [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhythm_guitar rhythm guitar] on "Ohio"
 
*[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stephen_Stills Stephen Stills] — vocals, [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guitars guitars]
 
*[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stephen_Stills Stephen Stills] — vocals, [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guitars guitars]
 
*[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graham_Nash Graham Nash] — vocals
 
*[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graham_Nash Graham Nash] — vocals
 
*[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neil_Young Neil Young] — vocals, guitars
 
*[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neil_Young Neil Young] — vocals, guitars
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===Additional personnel<span class="mw-editsection" style="-webkit-user-select:none;font-size:small;margin-left:1em;line-height:1em;display:inline-block;white-space:nowrap;unicode-bidi:-webkit-isolate;"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket" style="color:rgb(85,85,85);">[</span>[http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ohio_(Crosby,_Stills,_Nash_%26_Young_song)&action=edit&section=5 edit]<span class="mw-editsection-bracket" style="color:rgb(85,85,85);">]</span></span>===
 
===Additional personnel===
 
 
*[http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Calvin_Samuels&action=edit&redlink=1 Calvin Samuels] — [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bass_guitar bass] on "Ohio"
 
*[http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Calvin_Samuels&action=edit&redlink=1 Calvin Samuels] — [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bass_guitar bass] on "Ohio"
 
*[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Barbata John Barbata] — [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drum_kit drums] on "Ohio"
 
*[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Barbata John Barbata] — [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drum_kit drums] on "Ohio"
 
[[Category:1970 singles]]
 
[[Category:1970 singles]]
[[Category:Songs]]
 

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