What's Going On
What's Going On cover
{{{Type}}} by Marvin Gaye
Released January 20, 1971[1]
Recorded June 1, July 6, 7 and 10, September 21, 1970 – Hitsville USA (Studio A) [2]
Genre Soul, psychedelic soul
Length 3:53
3:40 (7-inch version)
Label Tamla (T 54201)
Producer Marvin Gaye
Marvin Gaye chronology
"The End Of Our Road"
"What's Going On"
"Mercy Mercy Me (The Ecology)"
colspan="3" scope="col" style="background:Template:Infobox Album/color;" | What's Going On track listing
"What's Going On"
"What's Happening Brother"

"What's Going On" is a song by American recording artist Marvin Gaye, released in 1971 on the Motown subsidiary Tamla. Originally inspired by a police brutality incident witnessed by Renaldo "Obie" Benson, the song was composed by Benson, Al Cleveland and Gaye and produced by Gaye himself. The song marked Gaye's departure from the Motown Sound towards more personal material. Later topping the Hot Soul Singles chart for five weeks and crossing over to number two on the Billboard Hot 100, it would sell over two million copies, becoming Gaye's second-most successful Motown song to date.[3]

The song topped Detroit's Metro Times list of the 100 Greatest Detroit Songs of All Time,[4] and in 2004, Rolling Stone magazine ranked it the fourth-greatest song of all time; in its updated 2011 list, the song remained at that position.[5] It is included in the Rock & Roll Hall of Fame's 500 Songs that Shaped Rock and Roll list, along with two other songs by the singer.[6] It was also listed at number fourteen on VH-1's 100 Greatest Rock Songs.[7]

Inspiration and writingEdit

The song's inspiration came from Renaldo "Obie" Benson, a member of the Motown vocal group the Four Tops, after he and the group's tour bus arrived at Berkeley on May 15, 1969.Template:Sfn While there, Benson witnessed police brutality and violence in the city's People's Park during a protest held by anti-war activists in what was hailed later as "Bloody Thursday".Template:Sfn Upset by the situation, Benson said to author Ben Edmonds that as he saw this, he asked, "'What is happening here?' One question led to another. Why are they sending kids so far away from their families overseas? Why are they attacking their own children in the streets?"Template:Sfn[8]

Upset, he discussed what he witnessed to friend and songwriter Al Cleveland, who in turn wrote and composed a song to reflect Benson's concerns. Benson wanted to give the song to his group but the other Four Tops turned down the request.Template:Sfn "My partners told me it was a protest song", Benson said later, "I said 'no man, it's a love song, about love and understanding. I'm not protesting, I want to know what's going on.'"Template:Sfn In 1970, Benson presented the untitled song to Marvin Gaye, who added a new melody and revised the song to his liking, adding in his own lyrics. Benson later said Gaye tweaked and enriched the song, "added some things that were more ghetto, more natural, which made it seem like a story than a song... we measured him for the suit and he tailored the hell out of it."Template:Sfn Gaye titled it "What's Going On". When Gaye initially thought the song's moody feel would be appropriate to be recorded by The Originals, Benson convinced Gaye to record it as his own song.

Gaye, himself, had been inspired by social ills committed in the United States, citing the 1965 Watts riots as a turning point in his life in which he asked himself, "'With the world exploding around me, how am I supposed to keep singing love songs?'"Template:Sfn Gaye was also influenced by emotional conversations shared between him and his brother Frankie, who had returned from three years of service at the Vietnam War and his namesake cousin's death while serving troops.Template:Sfn During phone conversations with Berry Gordy, who was vacationing in the Bahamas at the time, Gaye had told Gordy that he wanted to record a protest record, to which Gordy said in response, "Marvin, don't be ridiculous. That's taking things too far."Template:Sfn


Gaye entered the recording studio, Hitsville USA, on June 1, 1970 to record "What's Going On". Instead of relying on other producers to help him with the song, Gaye, inspired by recent successes of his productions for the vocal act, The Originals, decided to produce the song himself, mixing up original Motown in-house studio musicians such as James Jamerson and Eddie Brown with musicians he recruited himself.Template:Sfn The opening soprano saxophone line, provided by musician Eli Fontaine, was not originally intended. Once Gaye heard Fontaine's riff, he told Fontaine to go home. When Fontaine protested that he was just "goofing around", Gaye replied "you goof off exquisitely, thank you."Template:Sfn The laid-back atmosphere in the studio was brought on by constant marijuana smoking by Gaye and other musicians.Template:Sfn

Jamerson was pulled into the session after Gaye located him playing with a band at a local bar. Respected Motown arranger and conductor David Van De Pitte said later to Ben Edmonds that Jamerson "always kept a bottle of [the Greek spirit] Metaxa in his bass case. He could really put that stuff away, and then sit down and still be able to play. His tolerance was incredible. It took a hell a lot to get him smashed." The night Jamerson entered the studio to record the bass lines to the song, Jamerson couldn't sit properly in his seat and, according to one of the members of the Funk Brothers, laid on the floor playing his bass riffs.[9] De Pitte recalled that it was a track that Jamerson greatly respected: "On 'What's Going On' though, he just read the [bass] part down like I wrote it. He loved it because I had written Jamerson licks for Jamerson." Annie Jamerson recalls that when he returned home that night, he declared that the song they had been working on was a 'masterpiece', one of the few occasions where he had discussed his work so passionately with her.[10] Gaye also added his own instrumentation, playing piano and keyboards while also playing a box drum to help accentuate Chet Forest's drumming.[9]

To add more to the song's laid-back approach, Gaye invited the Detroit Lions players Mel Farr and Lem Barney to the studio and, along with Gaye and the Funk Brothers, added in vocal chatter, engaging in a mock conversation. Musician and songwriter Elgie Stover, who later served as a caterer for Bill Clinton and was then a Motown staffer and confidante of Gaye's, was the man who opened the song's track with the words, "hey, man, what's happening?" and "everything is everything".[11] Later Gaye brought Lem Barney and Mel Farr with him to record the song's background vocal track with him. The rhythm tracks and the song's overdubs were done at Hitsville, while strings, horns, lead and background vocals were recorded at Golden World Studios.[9]

On hearing a playback of the song, Gaye asked his engineer Kenneth Sands to give him his two vocal leads to compare what he wanted to use for the song's release. Sands ended up mixing the leads together, by accident. However, when he heard it, Gaye was so impressed with the double-lead feel that he kept it, influencing his later recordings where he mastered vocal multi-layering adding in three different vocal parts. Before presenting the song to Gordy, he produced a false fade to the song, bringing the song back for a few seconds after it was initially to have ended. The song was also notable for its use of major seventh and minor seventh chords, which was a fairly uncommon use at the time.[8] Gaye recorded the song's b-side, "God Is Love", on the same day.

When Gordy heard the song after Gaye presented the song to him in California, he turned down Gaye's request to release it, telling Gaye he felt it was "the worst thing I ever heard in my life".Template:Sfn When Harry Balk requested the song to be released, Gordy told him the song featured "that Dizzy Gillespie stuff in the middle, that scatting, it's old".Template:Sfn Gaye responded to this rejection by refusing to record material unless the song would be released, going on strike until, he felt, Gordy saw sense in releasing it.Template:Sfn


Commercial performanceEdit

Anxious for Marvin Gaye product, Balk got Motown's sales vice president Barney Ales to release the song, releasing it on January 17, 1971, sending 100,000 copies of the song to radio stations across the country. The initial success of this led to a further 100,000 to reach demand, selling over 200,000 copies within a week.[9] The song was issued without Gordy's knowledge.Template:Sfn The song eventually became a huge success, reaching the top of the charts within a month in March of the year, staying at number-one for five weeks on the Billboard R&B charts and one week at number-one on the Cashbox pop chart, while reaching number-two on the Billboard Hot 100.Template:Sfn Billboard ranked it as the No. 21 song for 1971. The song eventually sold more than two million copies, becoming then the fastest-selling Motown single at the time. The song's success forced Gordy to allow Gaye to produce his own music, giving him an ultimatum to complete an album by the end of March, later resulting in the What's Going On album itself.Template:Sfn

Critical receptionEdit

The song was reviewed by Slant magazine as a song that presented a contradictory sound, with the song's mournful tone going in contrast to the party atmosphere of the vocal chatter.[12] In reviewing the What's Going On album, Rolling Stone critic Vince Aletti stated that while the song's lyrics were "hardly brilliant", the song itself helped to set the mood for the rest of the album, and that "without overreaching they capture a certain aching dissatisfaction that is part of the album's mood."[13]

"What's Going On" was nominated for two Grammy Awards in 1972 including Best Male R&B Vocal Performance and Best Arrangement Accompanying Vocalist(s), but failed to win in any of the categories.

In 2004 and 2010, "What's Going On" was ranked #4 on the Rolling Stone list of "The 500 Greatest Songs of All Time", making it the highest Marvin Gaye song on the list.

In 2016, it was voted #2 in "Detroit's 100 Greatest Songs"[14], a project based on voting by music experts and the public, conducted by the Detroit Free Press.

In 1999, music writers Paul Gambaccini and Kevin Howlett listed the song #74 on BBC Radio 2's Songs of the Century.[15] In 2003, Q magazine placed the song 64th out of its 1001 Best Songs Ever. In 2004, the Detroit publication Metro Times named it the "Greatest Detroit Song of All Time" out of 100 songs on the list. It also reached #14 on VH1's 100 Greatest Rock Songs of All Time. In March 2012, New Musical Express named it the #33 Greatest 1970s song on their list.[16]


List Publisher Rank Year of Publication
500 Greatest Songs of All Time Rolling Stone 4 2010
Detroit's 100 Greatest Songs[17] Detroit Free Press 2 2016
100 Greatest Rock Songs VH1 14 2000
100 Songs That Changed the World Q 39 2003
1001 Best Songs Ever Q 64 2003
500 Songs That Shaped Rock Rock & Roll Hall of Fame N/A 1995
365 Songs of the Century RIAA 65 2001


Chart (1971-1983) Peak
U.S. Billboard Hot 100 2
U.S. Hot Selling Soul Singles 1
U.S. Cashbox Top 100 1
Syndicat National de l'Édition Phonographique 7
RPM 10
Official UK Singles Chart 80

Cyndi Lauper versionEdit

What's Going On
What's Going On cover
{{{Type}}} by Cyndi Lauper
Released March 1987
Recorded 1986
Genre Pop
Length 4:41
Label Epic
Producer Cyndi Lauper, Lennie Petze
Cyndi Lauper chronology
"Change of Heart"
"What's Going On"
"Boy Blue"

Cyndi Lauper covered "What's Going On" on her second album, True Colors, in 1986. In March 1987, it was released as the third single from the album. On the album version, the song starts off with a series of gunshots in reference to the Vietnam War while the single release is a remix with an alternate vocal used in the intro. It is the single version that most often appears on Lauper compilations. Lauper's cover was a modest hit worldwide. Thanks to club remixes by Shep Pettibone, the song reached #17 on the U.S. dance chart. However, the song failed to reach the US top ten unlike Lauper's previous two singles from her True Colors album including the title track and "Change of Heart", reaching #12. The video for the song, directed by Andy Morahan,[18] was nominated for an MTV Video Music Award.

Chart performanceEdit

Chart (1987) Peak
Australia (Kent Music Report)[19] 52
Dutch Singles Chart 30
German Singles Chart 46
New Zealand RIANZ Singles Chart 30
UK Singles Chart 57
U.S. Billboard Hot 100 12
U.S. Billboard Hot Dance Music Maxi Single Sales 7
U.S. Billboard Hot Dance Club Play 17
U.S. Cash Box Top 100 Singles 15

Track listingEdit

  1. "What's Going On" (Edit) - 3:51
  2. "One Track Mind" - 3:39
  1. "What's Going On" (club version) – 6:20 (Marvin Gaye; Al Cleveland; Renaldo Benson)
  2. "What's Going On" (long version) – 6:22 (Marvin Gaye; Al Cleveland; Renaldo Benson)
  3. "What's Going On" (instrumental) – 6:25 (Marvin Gaye; Al Cleveland; Renaldo Benson)
  4. "One Track Mind" – 3:39 (Cyndi Lauper; Jeff Bova; Jimmy Bralower; Lennie Petze)

Official versionsEdit

  1. Album version – 4:39
  2. Club version – 6:30
  3. Instrumental – 6:25
  4. Long version – 6:22
  5. Special version – 3:51

Charity versionsEdit

Live Aid Armenia coverEdit

What's Going On
{{{Type}}} by Live Aid Armenia
Released 1989
Recorded 1989
Genre Pop
Length 8:48
Label Epic
Producer Steve Levine (producer)
Fraser Kennedy and Jon Dee (executive producers)

The remake of "What's Going On"[20] was the first of the Rock Aid Armenia releases in aid of those suffering from the 1988 Armenian earthquake. The version credited to Live Aid Armenia featured Aswad, Errol Brown, Richard Darbyshire, Gail Ann Dorsey, Boy George, David Gilmour, Nick Heyward, Mykaell S. Riley, Labi Siffre, Helen Terry, Ruby Turner, Elizabeth Westwood and the Reggae Philharmonic Orchestra. The B-side was "A Cool Wind Is Blowing", Armenian duduk music played by Djivan Gasparyan. The record was produced by Steve Levine and the executive producers were Fraser Kennedy and Jon Dee. This was released as a single on Island Records.

Artists Against AIDS Worldwide coverEdit

On October 30, 2001, a group of popular recording artists under the name "Artists Against AIDS Worldwide" released an album containing multiple versions of "What's Going On" to benefit AIDS programs in Africa and other impoverished regions.[22] Jermaine Dupri and Bono produced the radio single version, whose performers included Lil' Kim, Britney Spears, Ja Rule, Missy Elliott, Nas, Christina Aguilera, NSYNC, Gwen Stefani, Jennifer Lopez, Ginuwine, Nelly Furtado, Fred Durst of Limp Bizkit, Solange Knowles, Destiny's Child, Lauryn Hill, Wyclef Jean, Backstreet Boys, Monica, Gaye's own daughter Nona, and many other popular artists. The album contained that single along with 8 additional remixes. The song was recorded shortly before the September 11, 2001 attacks, and it was decided afterwards that a portion of the song's proceeds would benefit the American Red Cross' September 11 fund as well. A music video was directed by Jake Scott.

Track listingsEdit

US maxi
  1. "What's Going On" (Dupri Original Mix) – 4:20
  2. "What's Going On" (The London Version) – 3:57
  3. "What's Going On" (Moby's Version) – 4:38
  4. "What's Going On" (Fred Durst's Reality Check Mix) – 5:16
  5. "What's Going On" (Mangini/Pop Rox Mix) – 5:50
  6. "What's Going On" (Mick Guzauski's Pop Mix) – 4:09
  7. "What's Going On" (Dupri R&B Mix) – 4:45
  8. "What's Going On" (The Neptunes This One's for You Mix) – 5:00
  9. "What's Going On" (Junior Vasquez's Club Mix) – 9:34
US vinyl maxi
  1. "What's Going On" (MK Mix) – 6:52
  2. "What's Going On" (The London Version) – 3:57
  3. "What's Going On" (MK Kitchen-Aid Dub) – 6:27
  4. "What's Going On" (Dupri Alternate Extended Mix) – 4:46
UK Cassette single
  1. "What's Going On" (Dupri Original Mix) - 4:19
  2. "What's Going On" (Moby's Version) - 4:36
  1. "What's Going On" (Dupri Original Mix) – 4:20
  2. "What's Going On" (Fred Durst's Reality Check Mix) – 5:16
  3. "What's Going On" (The London Version) – 3:57
  4. "What's Going On" (Moby's Version) – 4:36


Chart (2001) Peak
US Billboard Hot 100 27[A]
US Billboard Hot 100 Airplay 26
US Mainstream Top 40 24
US Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Singles & Tracks 76[B]
UK Singles Chart 6
  • [A] The Neptunes Mix
  • [B] The Jermaine Dupri Mix

Other cover versions and samplesEdit


  1. Marvin Gaye - 45 years ago! Marvin Gaye’s "What’s Going.... Facebook (2016-01-20). Retrieved on June 3, 2016.
  2. Classic Tracks Back To Back Singles. Thunder Bay Press. 2008. p. 125.
  3. Whitburn, Joel (2004). Top R&B/Hip-Hop Singles: 1942-2004. Record Research. p. 225.
  4. The 100 Greatest Detroit Songs Ever!. Retrieved on September 8, 2012.
  5. 500 Greatest Songs of All Time: Marvin Gaye, 'What's Going On' (April 7, 2011). Retrieved on September 8, 2012.
  6. Experience the Music: One-Hit Wonders and the Songs That Shaped Rock and Roll. The Rock & Roll Hall of Fame & Museum. Retrieved on July 5, 2012.
  7. Rock On The Net: VH1: 100 Greatest Rock Songs 1-50. Retrieved on September 8, 2012.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Edmonds, Ben (2003). Marvin Gaye: What's Going On and the Last Days of the Motown Sound. Canongate U.S.. ISBN 978-1-84195-314-4.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 Marvin Gaye 'What's Going On?' (July 11, 2011). Retrieved on September 8, 2012.
  10. Licks, Dr (May 1989). Standing In The Shadows Of Motown: The Life and Music of Legendary Bassist James Jamerson. Hal Leonard Corporation. p. 62. ISBN 978-0-88188-882-9.
  11. Barbecue Grill Showman Never Skipped Beat. Retrieved on May 8, 2012.
  12. Marvin Gaye: What's Going On. Retrieved on September 8, 2012.
  13. What's Going On Album Review. Rolling Stone (May 5, 1971). Retrieved on September 8, 2012.
  14. Detroit's 100 Greatest Songs. Detroit Free Press (2016-07-17). Retrieved on July 21, 2017.
  15. BBC RADIO 2 - SONGS OF THE CENTURY. Retrieved on September 8, 2012.
  16. Years Of The NME. Retrieved on September 8, 2012.
  17. Detroit's 100 Greatest Songs. Detroit Free Press (2016-07-17). Retrieved on July 21, 2017.
  18. Garcia, Alex S. - Cyndi Lauper - "What's going on?". Music Video DataBase. Retrieved on October 31, 2015.
  19. Kent, David (1993). Australian Chart Book 1970–1992 (Illustrated ed.). St Ives, N.S.W.: Australian Chart Book. p. 173. ISBN 0-646-11917-6. N.B. The Kent Report chart was licensed by ARIA between 1983 and 19 June 1988.
  20. Life Aid Armenia - Whats Goin On (CD) (2012-05-07). Retrieved on June 3, 2016.
  21. Time Calculator. Retrieved on August 15, 2012.
  22. Template:Cite press release
  23. What's Going On: All-Star Tribute > Charts & Awards > Billboard Singles. allmusic. Retrieved on June 1, 2010.
  24. 45th Annual Grammy Awards Winners. Retrieved on January 18, 2015.

External linksEdit

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